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wow Lightning and thunder weather fluctuations

Lightning and thunder occur when clouds collide with each other

Thunder is the sound caused by lightning.
Depending upon the distance from and nature of the lightning, it can range from a long, low rumble to a sudden, loud crack.

The sudden increase in temperature and hence pressure caused by the lightning produces rapid expansion of the air in the path of a lightning bolt.

In turn, this expansion of air creates a sonic shock wave, often referred to as a "thunderclap" or "peal of thunder". The study of thunder is known as brontology.

Etymology

The d in Modern English thunder (from earlier Old English þunor) is epenthetic, and is now found as well in Modern Dutch donder (cf. Middle Dutch donre; also Old Norse þorr, Old Frisian þuner, Old High German donar, all ultimately descended from Proto-Germanic *þunraz).

In Latin the term was tonare "to thunder". The name of the Nordic god Thor comes from the Old Norse word for thunder.
Cause
The cause of thunder has been the subject of centuries of speculation and scientific inquiry.

Early thinking was that it was made by deities, but the ancient Greek philosophers attributed it to natural causes, such as wind striking clouds (Anaximander, Aristotle) and movement of air within clouds (Democritus).

The Roman philosopher Lucretius held it was from the sound of hail colliding within clouds.



In the mid 19th century, the accepted theory was that lightning produced a vacuum and that the collapse of that vacuum produced what is known as thunder.

In the 20th century a consensus evolved that thunder must begin with a shock wave in the air due to the sudden thermal expansion of the plasma in the lightning channel.

The temperature inside the lightning channel, measured by spectral analysis, varies during its 50 μs existence, rising sharply from an initial temperature of about 20,000 K to about 30,000 K, then dropping away gradually to about 10,000 K.

The average is about 20,400 K (20,100 °C; 36,300 °F).

This heating causes a rapid outward expansion, impacting the surrounding cooler air at a speed faster than sound would otherwise travel.

The resultant outward-moving pulse is a shock wave,similar in principle to the shock wave formed by an explosion, or at the front of a supersonic aircraft.

In close proximity to the source, the sound pressure level of thunder is usually 165–180dB, but can exceed 200 dB in some cases


Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions, both in the atmosphere or with one on the ground, temporarily neutralize themselves, causing the instantaneous release of an average of one gigajoule of energy.

This discharge may produce a wide range of electromagnetic radiation, from heat created by the rapid movement of electrons, to brilliant flashes of visible light in the form of black-body radiation.

Lightning causes thunder, a sound from the shock wave which develops as gases in the vicinity of the discharge experience a sudden increase in pressure.

Lightning occurs commonly during thunderstorms as well as other types of energetic weather systems, but volcanic lightning can also occur during volcanic eruptions.

The three main kinds of lightning are distinguished by where they occur: either inside a single thundercloud, between two different clouds, or between a cloud and the ground.

Many other observational variants are recognized, including "heat lightning", which can be seen from a great distance but not heard; dry lightning, which can cause forest fires; and ball lightning, which is rarely observed scientifically.

Humans have deified lightning for millennia.

Idiomatic expressions derived from lightning, such as the English expression "bolt from the blue", are common across languages. The fear of lightning is called astraphobia
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