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The death of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his funeral ceremony

The death of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his funeral ceremony





Funeral of the late President attended by Sisi and current and former officials in Egypt


The funeral of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was held today, Wednesday, during an official military ceremony in Cairo, in the presence of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, the Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Army, Mohamed Hegazy, former and current officials, and delegations from Arab countries, amid tight security measures.





The funeral ceremonies began after the noon prayer at the Al-Mushir Mosque, east of Cairo, and the mourners then went to Mubarak’s body to attend the military memorial ceremonies, which Sisi, senior state officials, and former officials attended, before the coffin was carried to the family graves in Heliopolis.

Cairo airport authorities also raised the level of preparedness for the extreme case on Wednesday morning, to receive the delegations of mourners, most of whom are from Arab countries.



The Egyptian governorates and the bureaus of the ministries have turned the Egyptian flag in the middle of the flagpole, in implementation of the official mourning decision that begins today, Wednesday, and lasts for three days.
The Egyptian Ministry of Culture also postponed all recreational and artistic activities in
response to the state of mourning.

Mubarak, 91, died on Tuesday morning in Al-
Galaa Military Hospital, three weeks after having an abdominal surgery, and his health deteriorated.

Mubarak stepped down from the ruling on February 11, 2011, after mass demonstrations against his rule.

Mubarak was
commander of the Air Force at the rank of team, until he was appointed Vice President of the country during the rule of former President Anwar Sadat.

On October 14, 1981, Mubarak was sworn in as president after the
assassination of Sadat.

Mubarak ruled Egypt for nearly 30 years, before the head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Service, Omar Suleiman, announced that Mubarak would step down as president, after 18 days of demonstrations in the January 25 revolution in 2011.

The Egyptian presidency called on
former President Hosni Mubarak in a brief statement, limited to mentioning his military role as commander of the Air Force in the October War.

Who is the former President Mubarak?


Muhammad Hosni Mubarak, and his fame Hosni Mubarak (May 4, 1928 - February 25, 2020) was born in Kafr Al-Masilhah in Menoufia Governorate, he is the fourth president of the Arab Republic of Egypt from October 14, 1981 to succeed Muhammad Anwar Sadat,

 and even on February 11, 2011, he stepped down under popular pressure and handed over power to the Supreme Council Of the armed forces. He obtained a military education in Egypt, graduated from the Air Force College in 1950, and rose to military positions until he reached the position of Chief of Staff of the Air Force War, 



then Commander of the Air Force in April 1972 AD,
He led the Egyptian Air Force during the October 1973 war. In 1975, Muhammad Anwar Sadat chose him as Vice President of the Republic, and after the assassination of Sadat in 1981 by an Egyptian Islamic Salafi group that assumed the presidency after a popular referendum, he renewed his term through referendums in the years 1987, 1993, and 1999. 

Despite criticism of the conditions and mechanisms for running for the 2005 elections, it is the first direct multi-party election and Mubarak renewed his term for a fourth time by winning it. 

His term of office (until being forced to step down on February 11, 2011) is the fourth longest period of rule in the Arab region - among those who were alive at the time, after Sultan Qaboos bin Saeed Sultan of Oman and Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh and the longest among the kings and presidents of Egypt since Muhammad Ali Pasha.

He succeeded in 1989 by re-membership of Egypt, which had been frozen in the Arab League since the Camp David agreement with Israel and the return of the headquarters of the university to Cairo, known for his position in support of the Palestinian-Israeli peace negotiations, in addition to his role in the second Gulf War, and he positioned himself as a reliable ally of the West and a focal point of radical Islamic movements in The country.

 In spite of providing stability and reasons for economic growth, his rule was repressive. The state of emergency, which had not been lifted since 1967, silenced the political opposition, and the security services became known for their brutality and corruption spread.

After the outbreak of the January 25 Revolution, he was forced to step down on February 11, 2011, and was subsequently brought to trial in public on charges of killing protesters in the January 25 Revolution. 


He appeared - as the first former Arab president to be tried in this way - before a civil court on August 3, 2011, and was sentenced to life imprisonment on Saturday, June 2, 2012. He was released from all cases attributed to him and the misdemeanor court ruled to release him after the period of pre-trial detention. On August 21, 2013. 


He was acquitted on November 29, 2014 of all charges against him before the Cairo Court of Appeals headed by Chancellor Mahmoud Kamel Al-Rashidi, but on May 9, 2015 he and his two sons were convicted in the presidential palaces case and the Cairo Criminal Court issued a three-year prison sentence .


She receives several medals and international awards:

2008 Jawaharlal Nehru Award from India in recognition o his international prestige.


2005 World Peace Shield from the United Nations Federal Office for Middle East Peace office and being considered the Person of the Year for Peace.


2004 Mubarak granted the Shield of the Investors Union in Africa.

2002 Development Award.
2002 Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding.
2002 The Afro-Asian Prize for Peace.
1994 United Nations Award.
Democratic Human Rights Award by the Center for Political and Social Studies in Paris.
1989 Order of the Spanish University of Comptutense in Madrid.
1987 Honor Award Certificate of Protection equivalent to 4 medals by Mr. Laslo Nagui who is the Secretary General of the World Scouting Organization.
1987 The Astrolab Medal by Prince Sultan bin Salman, on behalf of the Saudi government.
1985 Man Prize in 1984 by Indian Solidarity Council.
1983 Man of the Year Award by an international institute in Paris.

1983 The Peace Man Shield by Mr. Charles Ryan, President of the International Peace Center.



Revolution against him:


Demonstrations started in the years 2005 and 2011 in particular, which were massive in 2011, in particular calling for Mubarak to step down and overthrow his regime.


25 January reveloution.

The Tahrir Square demonstrations started on February 9, 2011.



On January 25, 2011 a wave of demonstrations culminated in the Friday of January 28, where the number of participants was estimated at eight million people across Egypt, and the Egyptian regime faced these demonstrations with violence that led to the death of hundreds, especially in the city of Suez, the demonstrations developed until the withdrawal of forces Police and central security from the Egyptian streets, on the fourth day

 
(Friday, January 28) The army forces were sent down to the cities and the army leadership announced that it would not be exposed to the demonstrators. Mubarak made two speeches during the events, announcing in the first a set of decisions he described as reforms, and in the second he said he would not stand for a new presidential term in The following elections, affirming that he would not step down, immediately afterwards began demonstrations chanting slogans in support of Mubarak and clashed with protesters demanding the fall of Mubarak's rule in several areas, the most important of which is Tahrir Square in central Cairo in the absence of the army's intervention.


By Friday 4 February, the emergence of supporters of Mubarak, who described the aggressors as thugs, was no longer prominent, and made clear that among them were members of the security services of the Mubarak regime, in addition to groups that “had mercenaries” or had moved against demonstrators for the fall of Mubarak. Since morning hours, an estimated hundreds of thousands of people have gathered across Egypt in demonstrations for the fall of Mubarak, and prominent personalities joined them.

On February 10, 2011, his deputy, Omar Suleiman, was empowered in a statement he delivered to the people, but the statement received no approval, and as a result, the demonstrations intensified and millions took to the streets demanding his departure. 


The Supreme Council of the

e Egyptian Armed Forces. Millions of people then poured into the streets of Cairo and other Arab cities to celebrate his departure, especially in Tahrir Square.


His life after he stepped down:

A report, reported by the Daily Telegraph, of the official Saudi newspaper, Al-Khobar, stated that Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak (82-year-old), after he stepped down from power on February 11, 2011, and handed over authority to the Supreme Military Council of the Egyptian Armed Forces, left for the resort of Sharm El-Sheikh Hospital. In South Sinai where he regularly hosts foreign personalities.


April 13, 2011: The Egyptian Attorney General decided to imprison former President Hosni Mubarak for fifteen days pending an investigation with him on accusations of profit, abuse of power and influence, and issuing orders to kill protesters during the January 25 revolution.


April 15, 2011: The Attorney General orders the transfer of former President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak to a military hospital.


April 22, 2011: The Public Prosecutor orders the renewal of the imprisonment of former President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak for fifteen days, pending the investigation of the end of the first prison term.


He fell asleep at Sharm El-Sheikh Hospital, where he suffers from several diseases that prevent him from being transferred to Tora Prison, and his lawyer, Farid El-Deeb, said that cancer is spreading in Mubarak’s body and that he cannot walk, and that his wife Suzan Mubarak accompanies him all the time, but the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Egyptian TV lied This news on the same day.


July 28, 2011: Egyptian Minister of Justice, Counselor Mohamed Abdel Aziz El-Gendy announced that a hall is being prepared in the exhibition grounds in Nasr City in Cairo to try former President Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Alaa and Gamal, fugitive businessman Hussein Salem, former Minister of Interior Habib Al-Adly and 6 of his senior aides in a murder case. 

The demonstrators, whose session was scheduled for Wednesday, August 3, 2011, and that the trial will be secured by the army and police,
He pointed out that the hall is being prepared to accommodate the media men, lawyers, civil claimants and the families of the martyrs, and the trial will be shown on Egyptian TV in public.


July 31, 2011: It was decided to transfer the trial of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to the police academy in the Egyptian capital Cairo instead of the exhibition grounds for security reasons, although protesters doubt that Mubarak will attend the trial because of the rumors about his health, since he has been staying since last April in a hospital in Sharm Sheikh on the Red Sea Wednesday, August 3, 2011: The trial of former Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak began publicly and in his presence on a moving medical bed with his two sons, Gamal Mubarak, Alaa Mubarak, as well as his Minister of Interior Habib Al-Adly and others. He was charged with murder and corruption, and he denied all charges against him and his sons.


Saturday, June 2, 2012: The Cairo Criminal Court sentenced Muhammad Hosni Mubarak and his Interior Minister Habib al-Adly to life in prison. An acquittal was also pronounced on the felony of corruption, and its two sons, Gamal, Alaa and Hussein Salem, were sentenced to the expiry of the lawsuit for statute of limitations for ten years.


Sunday January 13, 2013 The court issued a decision accepting the appeal submitted by the Egyptian and Kuwaiti Defense Authority against the judgment issued against him, so that he can be transferred for treatment in the Maadi Hospital for the Armed Forces.


Wednesday, August 21, 2013: The misdemeanor court of the misdemeanor court ordered his release, but he was not released, as Hazem Al-Beblawy issued a decision to put him under house arrest as the country's deputy military ruler.


Decisions he made:


In 1982, in the wake of the complete Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai on April 25, Israel claimed its right to the strategic Taba region, so he made a decision to resort to international arbitration by recruiting a group of experts who were able to prove Egypt's historical right to Taba to judge the International Court to return Taba to Egypt, where he raised The Egyptian flag on Taba on March 19, 1989, to complete the liberation of the entire national territory.


September 2003: He abolished 14 articles in his capacity as the country's military ruler. Of the 21 articles of the emergency laws in force since the assassination of President Anwar Sadat.


September 2003 AD: He gave orders to the Egyptian Minister of Interior to put in place a new law that would allow every Egyptian married to a foreigner from her children to obtain Egyptian citizenship.


In December 2006: He referred 40 leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood to a military trial in his capacity as the country's military ruler, the decision that the Administrative Court of the State Council ruled on Tuesday, May 8, 2007, headed by Chancellor Mohamed al-Husseini, Vice-President of the Council of State, a decision rejecting the implementation of the President’s decision, which he appealed The President ruled the Appeals Review Court upholding the President's decision...


January 2011: As the country's military governor, he decided to impose a curfew for the second time since 1981 of the Emergency Law (the first time was during Central Security events in 1986).


January 29, 2011: Ahmed Shafiq was appointed Prime Minister and Omar Suleiman was appointed as Vice President of the Republic.


February 11, 2011: He decided to give up the rule of the Arab Republic of Egypt and assigned the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to manage the affairs of the country....

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